If you were hoping to be spared some document gathering because you're renewing your Brazilian passport rather than applying for a first-time issuance, no such luck; Brazil doesn't technically renew passports. Whenever you need a new one, you have to go through the same process as the first time. But you shouldn't have to do it too often at least, since Brazilian passports are valid for 10 years when issued to adults 18 or older. Reapplying from the U.S. isn't difficult, and can be done by mail.
Where to Renew in the U.S.
To get a new Brazilian passport in America, go through a regional Consulate General of Brazil or the Brazilian Embassy. The latter is in the U.S. capital, located at 3006 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008. A complete list of consulate locations, the states they serve and their contact information can be found on the Embassy of Brazil's website. There are 10 Brazilian consulates in the U.S., located in Atlanta, Ga.; Boston, Mass.; Chicago, Ill.; Hartford, Conn.; Houston, Texas; Los Angeles, Calif.; Miami, Fla.; New York, N.Y.; San Francisco, Calif.; and Washington D.C.
Passport applications may be submitted in person or by mail. Applying in person usually requires an appointment, and hours vary among locations, so check your destination's website for details. You can find the appropriate mailing address on the consulate site, too. Also, processing times vary by location. They're often shorter if you go in person – sometimes even same-day – and may range from a few days to a month or more by mail.
Documents Necessary for Passport Renewal
Bring or mail a number of documents to renew your Brazilian passport.
You'll need a Brazilian passport application and RER (Recibo de Entrega de Requerimento) form, which can be printed from any of the consulate websites' passport pages. Complete it, which includes pasting on a 2-inch by 2-inch passport photo with a white background that's no more than six months old and shows your full face from the front; don't wear any accessories for the picture. Some consulates take passport photos on site for free.
In addition, you must return your previous passport. If it's been lost, stolen or destroyed, fill out the Formulário de Perda, Furto, Extravio ou Destruição de Documento de Viagem, which can also be found on your consulate website's passport page. This form must be signed in front of your attending consular employee or notarized, and the same goes for the RER form. Also, some consulates accept only in-person applications for replacement passports if yours was lost, stolen or destroyed.
You also need your original birth certificate or naturalization certificate (or a certified copy), a marriage certificate or other legal document to support a name change if applicable, and official proof of military enlistment if you're a man between the ages of 18 and 45. Some consulates require a second form of identification, such as a Brazilian driver's license, so look over the list of necessary documents on your location's website.
For passport renewal applicants under the age of 18, both parents must supply an original Brazilian photo ID. Both must also sign a passport authorization form, available on consulate websites, and it must be signed in front of the consular agent or notarized if one parent cannot appear. Minor passports are processed only in person, not by mail.
Passport Fees and a SASE
You're not quite finished yet. There is, of course, the matter of your fee. It's more than $100 for an adult, but cheaper for kids. Find current fee information on your consulate website's passport page. This must be paid by a money order issued by the United States Postal Service and payable to the Consulate General of Brazil. You need separate money orders for each application if you're submitting more than one.
If you're applying for the passport by mail, also enclose a self-addressed stamped envelope with sufficient postage for the return of all your documents and the new passport. For most consulate locations, it has to be a USPS Priority Express Flat Rate envelope, and prepaid envelopes from private couriers like UPS, FedEx or DHL are not accepted. It's recommended that you set up delivery tracking, too.